What Is an Operating System? Best OS – iOS vs. Android vs. KaiOS?
Viewers may recognize operating systems as the squared rainbow or fruit-themed logo that they stare at whatever they care the love button of their desk and laptop. But the big and often ignored question beyond what makes us partial to our particular brand of software is – What do these systems of operation? Let’s start at the beginning before the half-eaten fruit or surprisingly opaque window makes its appearance when every operating system turns on a self-sustaining snowball style process known as Bootstrap.
Must complete an automated chain of functions that gradually increases access to system hardware and controls. Once this is done, the Operating System or OS becomes completely responsible for detecting what it and all other programs need from the hardware. And, then supplying that quickly. But imagine a world where every program needed to be written to interact directly with every combination of PC hardware.
It would be chaos, fortunately, we don’t need to live in that world and special pieces of software called Device Drivers. Loaded as part of the booting process, these enable hardware makers to write the code once and allow it to work on a wide variety of systems running the same or even sometimes just similar operating systems. So, you are booted and staring at the desktop, what now as soon as you interact with your computer, the software you’re using will send out something called a system, call which specifies a task.
A hardware component must perform for that software to continue functioning and to send further requests. Then once the operating system has registered these requests, it gathers them for organisation and processing. And, that’s important, so when a programme is first initiated and needs some system memory to get up and running it, sends out a call which is received by the Operating System memory manager. Once that call has been translated to the hardware’s language the OS then slots it into an active queue based on the amount of memory it feels is necessary.
Otherwise known as block size, when the programme is later closed, the OS will terminate the blocks which you had previously allocated for it. And, reserve them for other programmes or just leave them empty. If needed in this fashion, the OS is constantly receiving calls and altering cues using system managers for everything from processes to files to networks and devices. So the question now becomes, how do the Operating system and its system managers determine which programs are the most important? Well, it’s based on what we click of course.
You see the second and often most confounding function of an operating system is to provide us with a graphical. We are usually a graphical user interface that includes everything from the sign-in buttons to the taskbar design and even that annoying little beach ball that never stops spinning and if done correctly the UI gets out of the way. So, we can tell the computer what to put at the top of the queue. Maybe say for example, by maximizing it on the whole screen, the game, not the stupid antivirus pop up now.
That’s an example of a multitasking behaviour in your operating system gone wrong by the way. But, without multitasking modern operating systems would not be able to share resources between different tasks especially ones running in the background behind what you are focussed on like we explained in our previous guides. Everyone including nerdy accountants and hipster coffee drinkers, everyone’s computer usage experience would be a very different one.
Speaking of different experiences, FreshBooks imagine, if instead of running your own business by sitting at your computer every night and sending our invoices and crunching numbers on spreadsheets. What if instead of that you just spent your time doing the work that you wanted to be doing.
Basics of Operating System?
Did you know what you and your computer speak different languages? It doesn’t speak Spanish, or Swedish or Chinese; it speaks in ones and zeroes. You cannot communicate directly with your computer; that’s where your operating system comes in. The operating system is the programme that lets you interact with your computer.
Together, the operating system and computer hardware form a complete system that determines what your computer can do. There are many different operating systems. Two of the most common ones are Microsoft Windows, and MAC OS X. Windows comes preloaded on most personal computers; Mac OS X runs on all new Macs. Operating Systems are not just for computers and laptops, though. Mobile devices run mobile operating systems like Apple iOS or Google Android.
Operating Systems for mobile devices are designed for interactions with smaller touch screens. Before downloading new software, or applications, to your computer or mobile device, you should check to see if the application is compatible with your operating system. Some applications work on all operating systems, but others only work on certain ones. So, get to know your operating system to see how it works and what it can do.
How Operating Systems Works?
When a computer starts up, it loads an operating system, also known as an OS. A programme for managing the hardware and running other programs in the OS terminology. A running program is called a process and it is the OS’s responsibility to keep the processes from interfering with one another. Even as they run on the same system, at the same time, it’s also the OS’s job to provide an interface to the hardware for the processes. Such that the OS retains old direct control of the hardware device with the process only interacting with the devices via so-called systems.
Calls provided b with the OS, the OS also provides a file system which abstracts over the storage devices such as that processes can read and write files without concern for how precisely they get stored. Lastly, the OS provides a user interface for users to run programs and manage the file system. The most widely used operating system for PCs today is, of course, Microsoft’s Windows. The most recent version for client PCs is windows 8 and the variant for servers is window server 2012. The main alternatives to windows are all descendants of the UNIX operating system which was created in the early 1970s. These descendants don’t use any actual code from the original UNIX.
But, they share some common structure and conventions, both Linux and BSD short for Berkeley Software distributions are Unix-like operating systems that are free and open-source and developed by a scattered community. Around the world, Apple’s OS 10 was originally based on a variant of BSD. But, is itself proprietary and only legally available for Apps’ computer through the underlying apple hardware is the same as standard PC hardware except when we discuss file systems.
All the information in this unit will be platform agnostic applicable to both Windows and UNIX systems, a device driver is a plug-in module of the Operating System that handles the management of a particular input-output device some standardized devices may function with a generic driver. For example, a USB mouse may perform old common USB mouse functionality with a driver written for a generic USB mouse. However, many devices require the more specific driver for example in my system using the generic graphics strawberry.
Provided by Windows only provides bare minimum functionality to run high resolutions and play games. I must install the driver provided by AMD for Radeon Graphics Card. A primary purpose of modern operating systems is to allow for multiple processes to run concurrently meaning at the same time. The problem, of course, is that each CPU core can only execute the code of one process at a time.
And, the Operating System’s code cannot run on a core at the same time, as any process. The solution then is to have each CPU core alternate between running each open process and alternate running processes with running OS Code. So, here if we have two CPU cores and three open processes, A, B and C, notice that each process only runs on one core at a time. At no point does say process B run simultaneously on both of the two cores. Also, notice that OS code always runs on each core in between each process.
What’s happening here is that a portion of the OS called the scheduler runs after each process to decide what OS work if any should be done. And, which process should run? Next question then is how does the currently running process get interrupted left on it is own a running process would continue indefinitely when any hardware interrupt is triggered. However the interrupt handless passes off control to the scheduler rather than handing the processor core back to the interrupted process the scheduler then decided what OS code to run. If any and what process should run next.
Laid out in full the scheme called pre-emptive multitasking works like this. For the CPU receives some hardware interrupts then the interrupt stores the programme counter. So that the interrupted code can resume later the interrupt invokes the appropriate handles. The handler itself saves the state of the other CPU, registers, so that interrupted process can be resumed later. The handler does whatever business the interrupting device needs the handles.
The scheduler selects a process to run the scheduler then, restores the CPU. Registers to the state they were in. When that process was the last running so that process may continue and finally the scheduler jumps. Execution to that process, you may now be wondering two things. First, what if no interrupt is triggered by any device for a long time that would allow the currently running process to hog the CPU. When generally we want each process to at least get a little time regularly. Say, every several seconds or so a videogame for example typically cannot go without CPU time for more than a fraction of a second.
So, it would be no good if some other process ran without interruption for a second or more to ensure that the schedule gets to run regularly. Whether any input/output devices need attention or not a clock device on the mainboard is configured to send an interrupt regularly. Say, once every 10 or 20 milliseconds. Thus the system guarantees that the schedule gets the opportunity to change the running process on each core.
At least several times a second, the next thing you might wonder is how the scheduler chooses which process to run. Next using the simplest algorithm, the round-robin algorithm. The scheduler simply runs each process in turn, one after the other. While this ensures that every process gets run regularly. The more sophisticated algorithms used by Windows Linux and other modern operating systems attempt to take into account which crosses season.
Each processor time, more than other processes. Not only share the CPU cores the, of course, must also share the system memory. It’s the Operating System’s job to regulate the processes use of memory to ensure that each process does not interfere with the portions of memory used by other processes and by the OS. Itself here, for example, the processes a B and C have been allocated their portions of system memory while the Operating System may access any portion of memory as it chooses because the OS is supposed to be in charge of the system.
Each process can only access. Its portion of memory as we will explain shortly this restriction is enforced by the hardware making it impossible for a process to mock with the addresses. Outside of its portion of memory. However, we need a loophole for this restriction because processes must be able to invoke certain routines at fixed addresses in the Operating System portion of memory these routines called System. Calls are how processes initiate the request to the operating system them system calls provide functionality for things like say reading and writing files or for sending and receiving data over the network to invoke a system call a process must use a specific CPU instruction usually called CISCO.
In which the process specifies a system call number when this instruction has invoked the processor. Looks in the system called table for the address of the route corresponding to the number and jumps execution to that address because the operating system controls the system. Call table, a process can only jump execution to addresses of the operating systems choosing. So, aside from this, loophole, how do the operating system and hardware restricts the process to only access, its portion of memory.
Well, first off the CPU runs in two different privilege levels when OS code runs the CPU is put into a privilege level that allows access of the Input-Output devices and an address of memory when a process runs. However, the CPU is put into a privileged level that triggers a hardware exception when the code attempts to directly access the Input-Output devices or addresses not allowed for that process.
Processes are supposed to directly touch their memory, not anything else in the system now to understand how the CPU knows which addresses are allowed for each process. We have to first look at how a process uses memory. Each process uses a portion of its memory for a stack for a heap and for storing the processes code itself. In a section confusingly called the text section even though the code is in binary form the code section is straightforward the binary instructions are stored in a contiguous chunk of memory and never modified for the duration of the process except for dynamic linking with shared libraries as we described in the unit on programming languages.
The stack of heap though is both for storing data. The difference is that the stack stores the local variables used by the process and the heap stores everything else looking at the stack. First, the stack is a contiguous chunk of memory that starts unused when the first function is called. Let’s call it main, it’s local variables are stored on the stack in a grouping called a frame. when the main function itself invokes another function, let’s call it cat, the local variables of the cat are stored in another frame on top along with the size of the gramme and the return address.
The address to jump back to when execution returns from CAT. Likewise, if the CAT calls another function, dog, the dogs’ local variables the size of its frames and they return address to cat are stored in another frame on top notice. That as we add frames, we have to keep track at the top of the stack because that’s where we add a frame when the next function is cold. Many CPUs including x86 CPUs have a specific register for storing this address usually called the Stack Pointer.
When a function returns the frame size is used to adjust the stack pointer back down to the last frame and execution jumps back to the return address. So, when the dog returns execution returns the cat and the stack pointer will point to the top of cats. Frame notice that we don’t have to delete any frames because the space of frame occupies it simply get overwritten by subsequently frames as needed also. Notice that the first frame is special because the program ends when the first function returns so the first frame need not store it’s size or any return address because there’s nothing to return to.
Now, the diagram here suggests that the stack grows from the bottom, but in many cases, the stack frames start at high memory addresses and grow downwards. This is is the case with x86 CPU, this choice is though is mostly arbitrary. The size of stack space in some systems keeps track of with another pointer. Usually called the stack boundary kept in another CPU register in CPUs. With this register when the stack pointer runs past. The stack boundary this triggers a hardware exception handler may increase the stack space by moving this stack boundary.
However, the exception handler may decide at some point that the stack has grown too large and may simply refuse and then instead of simply terminating the process. Generally, the processes stack should only get so big a megabyte or two at the high end. When stacks grow past this size, it’s generally a sign of an underlying programming error. That should be corrected not accommodated the most common cause of an overly large stack is an overly long chain of recursive function calls.
When the program exceeds its available stack space, the error is called a stack overflow. When a stack overflow occurs on the PC, the operating system usually terminates the errant process and very simple, computers however such as in embedded systems, the stack size is not necessarily monitored with the stack boundary.
So, when a program consumes more stack space that it should, the stack may poke into parts of memory used for other data or code likely causing unpredictable bugs. The common arrangement in PCs is to store the stack at the top of a process’s address space and the text the code of the process at the bottom. All the remaining space in between is available for the heap. Unlike the stack in the text, however, no heap space exists, when the process starts executing instead, the process must explicitly request chunks of heap storage from the Operating System.
With a lump of system coal, in the coal, the process specifies, what size contiguous chunk at once, but it decides where to locate these chunks in the address space. And, the chunk locations are not necessarily adjacent when a process is done with a chunk of the heap. It should give the chunk back to the Operating System with a system call to deallocate. it is the responsibility of the OS to keep track of which portions of the address space are free for future allocations. But, notice that as a process allocates and deallocates chunks in memory. The memory space can become more and more fragmented effectively shrinking the size of the heat chunks. Which the Operating System can allocate because each chunk must be contiguous here.
For Example, the largest heap chunk, which the OS could allocate is considerably smaller than the amount of free space remaining good allocation. Algorithms can minimize these fragmentations but the problem cannot be avoided entirely. This partly explains why you should deallocate chunks of the heap when you no longer need them. By deallocating you free up areas in the address space so that they can be allocated again later. The broader reason to deallocate of course is that your process might simply run out of address space at some point.
Even if you process only needs a modest amount of heat memory at any one time. If your process runs along enough without properly, the allocating heap memory, the process may eventually run out of address space. At which point new allocations will fail likely requiring your process to terminate prematurely. So, failing to properly allocate unneeded heap memory is generally regarded as a bug called a memory leak. Because the memory available to your programme effectively dwindles over time, we will discuss this issue in more details on the unit on programming languages. The memory of a process does not refer directly to actual bytes of system memory.
Instead, chunks of the process address space are mapped by the operating system to chunks of system memory. But, not necessarily contiguous Lior in the same order here, for example, the stack is mapped to one area of RAM. In the middle, the code section is mapped to another non-adjacent area of RAM. Above it and the portions of the heap are mapped in non-adjacent parts of RAM in seemingly random order. When the operating system runs a process, it lists these address mappings in a table and as the process runs the CPU, consults this table to translate from the process, addresses to addresses of actual RAM for example. If the chunk of process address space starting at address 0 is mapped to byte ffff 0 0 0 0 of RAM.
Then, address 5 of the process address space translates to byte ffff 0005 of RAM. Be clear that each process has its own complete address space and that the Operating System keeps a separate memory table for each process effectively. Then the processes can be located by the Operating System in any part of RAM and each process can only access its memory. Not the memory of other processes or memory used by the various attempts to is a part of his address space which is not mapped to actual RAM in the process memory, table the CPU triggers a hardware exception and the Operating System then typically aborts the process with an error message complaining about a page fault because the maps chunks of memory are called pages.
Each page is usually a set size which depends upon the CPU 32-bit, x86 processors for example. Usually, use 4-kilobyte pages. So, a more realistic diagram would show that the stack heap and code portions of a process address space are most likely not mapped as whole units. For example – each page of the stack may be mapped to different non -adjacent pages of RAM and in no particular order to free up valuable RAM, the operating system may decide to swap out pages of a process to storage usually a hard drive.
Here, for example, these pages of heap memory are not currently mapped to any part of RAM, instead, their data has been temporarily copied out to a hard drive and in the process, memory table these heap pages have been marked swapped and attempt by the process to access an address in a swapped page will trigger an exception at which point the Operating System will copy the swaps page back to RIM and adjust the memory table accordingly before allowing the process to proceed.
Thanks to swapping, the total memory used by all processes may exceed the capacity of RAM in the system swapping pages in and out of storage is of course, relatively slow. But, better than the system occasionally goes a bit slow to swap pages.
Rather than simply cease the function by running out of memory with swap in the processes can use as much as memory space as the system has free storage in practice the small pages in a typical PC at any moment will rarely exceed more than a gigabyte or two of storage. But, most pages, used by most processes don’t get used very frequently.
So, they might as well sit in swap space most of the time. In its life cycle, a process transitions through a few major states after the Operating System does all the business. It needs at the time of process creation, the process transitions into the waiting state, the sense of waiting here is waiting to be selected by the scheduler when the scheduler selects the process to run and then, of course, enter the running state when the scheduler selects a different process to run on the same core.
This process is placed back to the waiting state a process typically goes back and forth many times between and running until the process ends at which point it enters its final state, terminated. There is at least one more important state blocked in the blocked state, the process is waiting for some external event in the system before can proceed rather than waiting to be scheduled. So, it is neither the state of running nor so cold waiting.
Most commonly they block state is triggered when a process invokes certain system calls such as for reading files. Reading a file often blocks the process, because the most storage devices such as hard drives are relatively much slower than operations of the CPU and often a program cannot do anything useful until it gets the data.
It needs from a file in such cases, the process might as well relinquish the CPU core, it was using and take itself out of the wading pool allowing other processes to run while it waits once the operating system finishes retrieving the requested data from storage it unblocks the process putting it back into the waiting state so that the scheduler will consider it again for execution. Once the operating system finishes retrieving the requested data from storage it blocks the process putting it back into the waiting state.
So, the scheduler will consider it again for execution. So, don’t get confused, both the blocked and waiting states involve waiting, but only in the waiting state will the scheduler select the process. To run in the block state, the process waits until the Operating System puts it back in the waiting state. there are several reasons to block and unblock a process but the most common reason is that that process has to wait for some slow device in the system. As we’ve mentioned, device drivers handle the business of how exactly to talk to an Input-Output device and that includes storage devices like hard drives.
However operating systems provide an extra layer of abstraction for storage devices called the file system which presents storage space as a hierarchy of directories and files stored in those directories when your program uses a hard drive for example, you don’t want to have a concern yourself with the details of moving heads and spinning platters you just want to read and write data and contiguous you.
And it’s called files and you want to have those files organized into directories, the file system provides a subtraction allowing program is to read and write data from any kind of storage in the same way, whether a hard drive, an optical disk, a flash drive or whatever the storage area of each drive is divided into one or more contiguous chunks called partitions. Notice that some areas of the drive may be left a blank unformatted gap between the second and third partitions. Of the first hard drive, most commonly through a drive is formatted to have just one partition. Occupying its entire storage area, still creating multiple partitions, serve some niche use cases.
Multiple Operating Systems on a single drive in most partition formats use today each file in a directory within a partition is known by an identifier number. Unique within that partition so here we have a partition with a file 35 and so we can have no other files within that partition, with the ID-35, nor any directories. With the ID 35, a file is simply a logically contiguous chunk of data, a sequential series of bytes what these bytes of a file represent is entirely upto the program.
Which writes the file notice though I said that a file is logically contiguous. When bytes are read and written by a program, the program sees them is a contiguous sequential series but a file stored on a disk may be stored Non-contiguous and out of order. It’s a responsibility of the filesystem to ensure that the logical order gets reconstructed when the file data is sent to a program.
A directory quite simply is a list of files and other directories on the partition. The directory associates ID numbers for files or directories with names. Names which must be unique amongst all other files or directories, listed in the same directory. So, within a directory, you can have a file and directory both names say – Albert. But, you cannot have more than one files named AI or more than one directory named Albert.
When a partition is newly created, it starts with no files and no directories except for one special directory called the root directory, which cannot be deleted. In Windows, each partition is assigned a drive letter, usually denoted with a suffix: For example C: H: D: etc. a file path is a string of text denoting the location on the system of a file or directory in windows.
The root directory on these drives is known by the Paths C, H: and D: respectively. The path C:/Adans? Nixon refers to a file or directory named Nixon listed in a directory Adams. Itself, listed in the root directory on the C partition, the path H:/ Taylor? Polk? Hayes refers to a file or directory named Hayes listed in a directory Polk listed in a directory Taylor listed in the root directory on the H partition.
The path D:/ Garfield refers to a file or directory named Garfield listed in the root directory on the D partition. While the preferred convention in Windows file paths is to use backslashes for slashed work just as well and UNIX. However, the file path must use forward slashes. The other major difference in UNIX is that partitions are not assigned the drive letters instead one partition is mounted at root meaning.
That the path slash refers to the root directory on that partitions each additional partition is then made accessible by mounting it to some directory on some other already mounted partition. Here partition 2 is mounted to root and then partition 1 is mounted to the directory /banana on partition 2 and in turn partition 3 is mounted to the slash banana/ apple on partition 1. So, be clear that /banana becomes synonymous with the root directive partition 1 such that /banana/apple must refer to a directory apple in the root of partition 1 with these partitions mounted like this path/banana/ Adam/ Nixon.
Now refer to a file or directory named Nixon listed in the directory Adams listed in the route of partition 1. The path/ Taylor/ Polk/ Hayes now refers to a file or directory named Hayes. Listed in the directory Polk listed in the directory Taylor listed in the route of partition 2. The path/ banana/ apple/ Garfield refers to a file. Our directory named Garfield listed in the root directory of partition 3 UNIX systems generally requires that a directory already exists before can be used as a mount point if the mountains directory lists any files or directories those entries are effectively obscured.
By the mounting so when we mount partition 1, the slash banana on partition 2, we can no longer access the content of the directory because / banana now resolves to the root directory of partition 1. IPC – Interprocess communication is an umbrella term for any mechanism of the CPU that facilitates communication between the process, the simplest kind of IPC files can be read and written by multiple processes. And those can service channels of communication between them other mechanisms include pipes network and sockets signals and shared memory. And, we will discuss some of these in the unit on UNIX system calls.
History Of Operating System
We use a computer every single day from desktops, laptops, tablets and smartphones. But in many ways, we have become almost oblivious to how they work the user interface is used across all these operating systems have become intuitive and almost anonymous to us the majority of people reading this guide. You may have come to expect certain conventions and behaviours from the operating systems we use daily.
When you look at your Windows PC, your MAC or Linux machine and indeed your Android or iOS device you are looking at the collective total of years of software and hardware progress and development to reach the current look and feel you see before you. So, in many ways, the features we take for granted were in one day very alien concepts. To those early computing pioneers, the modern OS has come from somewhere, this guide will about the history to birth to the modern operating system.
This is the History of the Operating System. In the beginning, computers were simply mainframes. Without operating systems that relied on punch-card input as well as magnetic and paper tapes the earliest stored programme computer was developed by the Victoria University of Manchester in 1948. It was called a Manchester automatic digital machine in the 1960s IBM was the leading computer hardware vendor and developed the Operating System 360.
But, it was not until later in the decade that the rise of UNIX would change everything. AT&T Bell Laboratories developed the system for their old PDP – seven minicomputers by today’s standards, there was nothing mini about it. But, back then a computer that didn’t take up half a room was considered small. It cost seventy-two thousand dollars, it used flip-chip technology. And would support a keyboard, printer paper tape and dual transport, deck table drives by today’s standards it had a memory capacity of just nine kilobytes. But, of course back then memory was not measured in bytes it was measured in words of which it could store only 4,000 UNIX proved popular because it was easy to obtain, easily modified and completely free.
That would bring us 8-bit processors including the Intel 8080, a precursor to the 386 processor and later the Intel 486. But it wasn’t until the 1980s when we started to see a giant leap in computing development. This was because it had finally become commercially viable to produce smaller computers for the home. These included the Commodore, 64, the Apple 2 series, the Atari 8-bit machine and of course who could forget the ZX spectrum in 1981 Xerox introduced the star office information system. Which would ultimately prove revolutionary because it gave Apple the idea to produce a GUI, graphical user interface-based operating system for the first time? And, include mouse-based input.
This was the first time anyone had ever seen icon represent files and folders on a computer system we take it for granted now. But back then that was highbrow stuff and a lot of people found ie very difficult to actually to get to grips. With even to this day, you can still see where modern operating systems, take their design cues and their general conventions and behaviours. From all the work at Xerox did back in the day it gave us terms like desktop and property settings but also delete copy and move functions to this day. We still owe the majority of these breakthroughs to Xerox and not apply or Microsoft of course at this time, Microsoft Dawson PC. DA Sold on IBM computers was the market leader and would remain relatively intact beneath windows 95, 98 and millennium as a software compatibility mode.
For older applications, it consumed very little installation space and was both flexible and more reliable than windows. At that time, but, of course, it reached its demise in 2000 when development ceased and of course Windows 2000 and XP would completely replace it backing things up. A little bit though it was Apple’s LISA office system in 1983 that gave us the first graphical user interface-based operating system, that was commercially viable as you can see it bears a striking resemblance to Xerox interpretation. However, Lisa was way too expensive for the average consumer and the machine itself a commercial failure.
Later, Apple would develop system 1.0 in 1984 for the original Macintosh and then everything changed even today you can see that the first MAC operating system has some striking similarities to what we use today. The apple logo and the general layout of folders, the taskbar at the top and the trash can in the bottom right -hand corner in many ways. It’s kind of like a primitive version of Operating System 10 or more. Accurately more like OS 9, but you can still see that Apple has retained the general layout of their desktop.
Operating system after all these years Microsoft would copy Apple in developing Windows and of course, Windows 95 was the biggest operating system of the 90s. When you look at these operating systems developed by Microsoft and Apple over the years although lots changed in many ways, they still retain the same design elements and UI conventions that we see today. But, of course operating systems have evolved beyond the mouse and keyboard with the advent of touchscreen devices and social media operating systems have begun to go through their next major evolution. Now, social media networks pervade desktop environments with reminders and notifications.
They’ve become far more simplified and appliance-like users expect them to be even more intuitive and easier to use with all of the complexity and technology are hidden away from them. We take so many of the great features and functions of our operating system today for granted. And it can be all too easy to forget where the ingenuity and creativity came from. There’s no doubt that the operating systems of today are light years ahead. What we had in the 70s, 80s and 90s, but the fundamental principles and core commitment to meet the user’s needs.
And, recognize the importance of breaking down the barrier between the hardware and the software and the human interface remains an evolving project we can only speculate where operating systems will be in the next 10 or 20 years. But one thing’s for sure, wherever we are headed, the progress we make will be built on a mountain of developmental successes and failures made by those first computing pioneers from the dawn of the computing age.